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Drinking water and process water

Water - Filtration

Single layer filter:

In general, filtration is described as a process to separate solids from a liquid phase of a suspension. In this case the filters have a filling of a granular mass.
Depending on the quality of the raw water and the flow rates, different types of filter find application to remove the residual suspended solids.
At high flow rates either fast or slow multilayer filters are effectively used to remove suspended solids.
These are mostly closed filters (pressure filters).
Pressure filters are used in closed hydraulic pressure systems with a correspondingly high pressure drop.
In general the flow direction is downwards.
Charcoal filters are used to remove organic trace elements, excessive chlorine or chlorine compounds.

Cartridge filters:

These are filter elements with a textile fibre wound crosswise on a cylindrical carrier to form fine pores. Cartridge filters are used as pre-filters for pre-separation and the fine separation with materials such as activated charcoal, ion exchangers and reverse osmosis systems.

Membrane techniques:

These are filter elements with a textile fibre wound crosswise on a cylindrical carrier to form fine pores. Cartridge filters are used as pre-filters for pre-separation and the fine separation with materials such as activated charcoal, ion exchangers and reverse osmosis systems.

Application areas:

Various membranes have been developed for use in membrane separation techniques. The membranes are used as flat or hollow fibre membranes. The flat membranes are mainly used in systems with wound modules, whereby wound modules are the preferred choice for water treatment applications. The hollow fibre module is a type with hollow fibres based on polyamide. Polyamide membranes can be used over a wide pH range. This is advantageous in the process of water desalination as these modules can be rinsed with alkaline or acidic rinsing agents in order to avoid permanent damage through deposits.
Many of these fibres are arranged in a plastic container around a central distribution pipe through which raw water flows evenly and radially under pressure into the inside over the whole length of the module. The pressure presses the water through the fibre walls from where it flows as a permeate in the direction of the thickening plate. A porous plate collects the permeate in order to discharge it on the side opposite of the raw water inlet while the concentrated waste water flows out again via an annular channel.



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